Sunday, April 28, 2013

Main article: Mother's Day (U.S.)

Founding

Main article: Mother's Day (U.S.)
The modern holiday of Mother's Day was first celebrated in 1908, when Anna Jarvis held a memorial for her mother in America. She then began a campaign to make "Mother's Day" a recognized holiday in the United States. Although she was successful in 1914, she was already disappointed with its commercialization by the 1920s. Jarvis' holiday was adopted by other countries and it is now celebrated all over the world. In this tradition, each person offers a gift, card, or remembrance toward their mothers, grandmothers, and/ or maternal figure on mother's day.
Various observances honouring mothers existed in America during the 1870s and the 1880s, but these never had resonance beyond the local level.[6] Jarvis never mentioned Julia Ward Howe's attempts in the 1870s to establish a "Mother's Day for Peace", nor any connection to the Protestant school celebrations that included "Children's Day" amongst others. Neither did she mention the traditional festival of Mothering Sunday, but always said that the creation was hers alone.[7] For more information on previous attempts, see the "United States" section in this article.
[edit]Spelling

In 1912, Anna Jarvis trademarked the phrases "second Sunday in May" and "Mother's Day", and created the Mother's Day International Association.[8] She specifically noted that "Mother's" should "be a singular possessive, for each family to honour their mother, not a plural possessive commemorating all mothers in the world."[9] This is also the spelling used by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson in the law making official the holiday in the United States, by the U.S. Congress in relevant bills,[10][11] and by various U.S. presidents in their proclamations concerning Mother's Day.[12] However, "Mothers' Day" (plural possessive) or "Mothers Day" (plural non-possessive) are also sometimes seen.
[edit]Dates around the world

As the American holiday was adopted by other countries and cultures, the date was changed to fit already existing celebrations honoring motherhood, such as Mothering Sunday in the United Kingdom or, in Greece, the Orthodox celebration of the presentation of Jesus Christ to the temple (2 February). Mothering Sunday is often referred to as "Mother's Day" even though it is an unrelated celebration.[5]
In some countries the date was changed to a date that was significant to the majority religion, such as Virgin Mary day in Catholic countries. Other countries selected a date with historical significance. For example, Bolivia's Mother's Day is the date of a battle in which women participated.[13] See the "International history and tradition" section for the complete list.
Ex-communists countries, such as the former East Germany, usually celebrated the socialist International Women's Day instead of the more capitalist Mother's Day.[14] Some ex-communist countries, like Russia, still follow this custom[15] or simply celebrate both holidays, which is the custom in Ukraine.
Note: Countries that celebrate the International Women's Day instead of Mother's Day are marked with a dagger "†".
Gregorian calendar
Occurrence    Dates    Country
Second Sunday of February
Feb 12, 2012
Feb 10, 2013
Feb 9, 2014
 Norway
3 March
 Georgia
8 March
 Afghanistan
 Albania
 Kosovo
 Armenia†
 Azerbaijan†
 Belarus†
 Bosnia and Herzegovina†
 Bulgaria†
 Kazakhstan†
 Laos
 Macedonia†
 Republic of Moldova
 Montenegro†
 Romania
 Russia†
 Slovenia†
 Serbia†
 Tajikistan†
 Vietnam†*
Fourth Sunday in Lent
Mar 18, 2012
Mar 10, 2013
Mar 30, 2014
 Ireland
 Nigeria
 United Kingdom
21 March
(vernal equinox)
 Bahrain
 Djibouti
 Egypt
 Iraq
 Jordan
 Kuwait
 Libya
 Lebanon[16]
 Mauritania
 Oman
 Palestinian Authority
 Qatar
 Saudi Arabia
 Somalia
 Sudan
 Syria
 United Arab Emirates
 Yemen
25 March
 Slovenia
7 April
 Armenia
First Sunday in May
May 6, 2012
May 5, 2013
May 4, 2014
 Hungary
 Lithuania
 Mozambique
 Portugal
 Spain
8 May
 South Korea (Parents' Day)
10 May
 El Salvador
 Guatemala
 Mexico
 Belize
Second Sunday of May
May 13, 2012
May 12, 2013
May 11, 2014
 Anguilla
 Antigua and Barbuda
 Aruba
 Australia
 Austria
 Bahamas
 Bangladesh
 Barbados
 Belgium
 Bermuda
 Bonaire
 Botswana
 Brazil
 Brunei
 Canada
 Cambodia
 Chile[17]
 People's Republic of China†[18]
 Colombia
 Croatia
 Cuba[19]
 Curaçao
 Cyprus
 Czech Republic[20]
 Denmark
 Dominica
 Ecuador
 Estonia
 Ethiopia
 Fiji
 Finland
 Germany
 Ghana
 Gold Coast
 Greece
 Grenada
 Guyana
 Honduras
 Hong Kong
 Iceland
 India
 Italy
 Jamaica
 Japan
 Kurdistan
 Latvia
 Liberia
 Liechtenstein
 Macao
 Malaysia
 Malta
 Burma
 Netherlands
 New Zealand
 Pakistan
 Papua New Guinea
 Peru[21]
 Philippines
 Puerto Rico
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
 Saint Lucia
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
 Samoa
 Singapore
 Sint Maarten
 Slovakia[20]
 South Africa[citation needed]
 Sri Lanka
 Suriname
 Switzerland
 Taiwan
 Tanganyika
 Tonga
 Trinidad and Tobago
 Turkey
 Uganda
 Ukraine
 United States
 Uruguay
 Vietnam
 Venezuela
 Zambia
 Zimbabwe
15 May
 Paraguay (same day as Día de la Patria)[22]
26 May
 Poland "Dzień Matki"
27 May
 Bolivia[13]
Last Sunday of May (sometimes first Sunday of June if it's Pentecost)
May 27, 2012
May 26, 2013
May 25, 2014
 Algeria
 Dominican Republic
 France (First Sunday of June if Pentecost occurs on this day)
 French Antilles (First Sunday of June if Pentecost occurs on this day)
 Morocco
 Haiti[23]
 Mauritius
 Sweden
 Tunisia
30 May
 Nicaragua[24]
1 June
 Mongolia† (Mothers' and Children's Day.)
Second Sunday of June
Jun 10, 2012
Jun 9, 2013
Jun 8, 2014
 Luxembourg
Last Sunday of June
Jun 24, 2012
Jun 30, 2013
Jun 29, 2014
 Kenya
12 August
 Thailand (birthday of Queen Sirikit)
15 August (Assumption of Mary)
 Costa Rica
Antwerp (Belgium)
Second Monday of October
Oct 8, 2012
Oct 14, 2013
Oct 13, 2014
 Malawi
14 October
 Belarus
Third Sunday of October
Oct 21, 2012
Oct 20, 2013
Oct 19, 2014
 Argentina (Día de la Madre)[25]
Last Sunday of November
Nov 25, 2012
Nov 24, 2013
Nov 30, 2014
 Russia
3 November
 Timor Leste
8 December (Feast of the Immaculate Conception)
 Panama[26]
22 December
 Indonesia[27]
Other calendars
Occurrence    Equivalent Gregorian dates    Country
Shevat 30
Between 30 January and 1 March    
 Israel[28]
Baisakh Amavasya (Mata Tirtha Aunsi)
Between 19 and 29 April    
 Nepal
20 Jumada al-thani[n 1]
24 May 2011
12 May 2012
 Iran[29]
[edit]International history and tradition



Mother's Day in the Netherlands in 1925


Northern Pacific Railway postcard for Mother's Day 1916.


Mother's Day gift in 2007
In most countries, Mother's Day is a recent observance derived from the holiday as it has evolved in the United States. As adopted by other countries and cultures, the holiday has different meanings, is associated with different events (religious, historical or legendary), and is celebrated on different dates.
In some cases, countries already had existing celebrations honoring motherhood, and their celebrations then adopted several external characteristics from the American holiday, such as giving carnations and other presents to one's mother.
The extent of the celebrations varies greatly. In some countries, it is potentially offensive to one's mother not to mark Mother's Day. In others, it is a little-known festival celebrated mainly by immigrants, or covered by the media as a taste of foreign culture.[citation needed]
[edit]Religion
In the Roman Catholic Church, the holiday is strongly associated with revering the Virgin Mary.[30] In many Catholic homes, families have a special shrine devoted to the Blessed Virgin Mary. In many Eastern Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches, a special prayer service is held in honor of the Theotokos Virgin Mary.
In Hindu tradition Mother's Day is called "Mata Tirtha Aunshi" or "Mother Pilgrimage fortnight", and is celebrated in countries with a Hindu population, especially in Nepal. The holiday is observed on the new moon day in the month of Baisakh, i.e., April/May. This celebration is based on Hindu religion and it pre-dates the creation of the Western-inspired holiday by at least a few centuries.[citation needed]
[edit]By country (A–G)
[edit]Arab world
Mother's Day in most Arab countries is celebrated on 21 March, the first day of spring in the northern hemisphere. It was introduced in Egypt by journalist Mustafa Amin[31] in his book Smiling America (1943). The idea was overlooked at the time. Later Amin heard the story of a widowed mother who devoted her whole life to raising her son until he became a doctor. The son then married and left without showing any gratitude to his mother. Hearing this, Amin became motivated to promote "Mother's Day". The idea was first ridiculed by president Gamal Abdel Nasser but he eventually accepted it and Mother's Day was first celebrated on 21 March 1956. The practice has since been copied by other Arab countries.
When Mustafa Amin was arrested and imprisoned, there were attempts to change the name of the holiday from "Mother's Day" to "Family Day" as the government wished to prevent the occasion from reminding people of its founder. These attempts were unsuccessful and celebrations continued to be held on that day; classic songs celebrating mothers remain famous to this day.
[edit]Afghanistan
In Afghanistan, Mother's Day was celebrated on 12 June 2010, on the second Saturday in June.[citation needed]
[edit]Argentina
In Argentina, Mother's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of October. The holiday was originally celebrated on 11 October, the old liturgical date for the celebration of the Virgin Mary. (After the Second Vatican Council the Virgin Mary festivity was moved to 1 January.)[25] Around 1982, national merchants asked that Mother's Day be moved to the third Sunday of October to stimulate sales in the second half of that month.[32]
[edit]Australia
In Australia, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday in May.
The tradition of giving gifts to mothers on Mother's Day in Australia was started by Mrs Janet Heyden,[33] a resident of Leichhardt, Sydney, in 1924. She began the tradition during a visit to a patient at the Newington State Home for Women, where she met many lonely and forgotten mothers. To cheer them up, she rounded up support from local school children and businesses to donate and bring gifts to the women. Every year thereafter, Mrs Heyden raised increasing support for the project from local businesses and even the local Mayor. The day has since become commercialised. Traditionally, the chrysanthemum is given to mothers for Mother's Day as the flower is naturally in season during May (autumn in Australia) and ends in "mum", a common affectionate shortening of "mother" in Australia. Men will often wear a chrysanthemum in their lapels in honour of mothers.
[edit]Bangladesh
In Bangladesh, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of the month of May. In observance of the day discussion programs are organized by government and non-governmental organizations. Reception programs and cultural programs are organized to mark the day in the capital city. Television channels air special programs, and newspapers publish special features and columns to mark the day. Greeting cards, flowers and gifts featuring mothers are in high demand at the shops and markets.
[edit]Belgium
In Belgium, Mother's Day (Moederdag or Moederkesdag in Dutch and Fête des Mères in French) is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. In the week before this holiday children make little presents at primary school, which they give to their mothers in the early morning of Mother's Day. Typically, the father will buy croissants and other sweet breads and pastries and bring these to the mother while she is still in bed – the beginning of a day of pampering for the mother. There are also many people who celebrate Mother's Day on 15 August instead; these are mostly people around Antwerp, who consider that day (Assumption) the classical Mother's Day and the observance in May an invention for commercial reasons.
[edit]Bolivia
In Bolivia, Mother's Day is celebrated on 27 May. El Dia de la Madre Boliviana was passed into law on 8 November 1927, during the presidency of Hernando Siles Reyes. The date commemorates the Battle of La Coronilla, which took place on 27 May 1812, during the Bolivian War of Independence, in what is now the city of Cochabamba. In this battle, women fighting for the country's independence were slaughtered by the Spanish army. It is not a festive day, but all schools hold activities and festivities throughout the day.[contradiction][13]
[edit]Brazil
In Brazil, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of May.
The first Mother's Day in Brazil was promoted by Associação Cristã de Moços de Porto Alegre (Young Men's Christian Association of Porto Alegre) on 12 May 1918. In 1932, then President Getúlio Vargas made the second Sunday of May the official date for Mother's Day. In 1947, Archbishop Jaime de Barros Câmara, Cardinal-Archbishop of Rio de Janeiro, decided that this holiday would also be included in the official calendar of the Catholic Church.
Mother's Day is not an official holiday (see Public holidays in Brazil), but it is widely observed and typically involves spending time with and giving gifts to one's mother. Because of this, it is considered one of the celebrations most related to consumerism in the country, second only to Christmas Day as the most commercially lucrative holiday.[34]
[edit]Bulgaria
In Bulgaria, 8 March is associated with International Women's Day. The holiday honours women as human beings and equal partners.
Another Bulgarian holiday related to maternity and the family is Babinden (Bulgarian Бабинден), celebrated on 8 January.
[edit]Canada
See also Other observances in Canada
Mother's Day in Canada is celebrated on the second Sunday in May (it is not, however, a public holiday or bank holiday), and typically involves small celebrations and gift-giving to one's mother, grandmother, or other important female figures in one's family. Celebratory practices are very similar to those of other western nations, such as Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. Many people in Canada express their gratitude towards mothers and mother figures on Mother's Day. A Québécois tradition is for Québécois men to offer roses or other flowers to the women.
[edit]China
Mother's Day is becoming more popular in China. Carnations are a very popular Mother's Day gift and the most sold flowers in relation to the day.[35] In 1997 Mother's Day was set as the day to help poor mothers and to remind people of the poor mothers in rural areas such as China's western region.[35] In the People's Daily, the Chinese government's official newspaper, an article explained that "despite originating in the United States, people in China accept the holiday without hesitation because it is in line with the country's traditional ethics – respect for the elderly and filial piety towards parents."[35]
In recent years, the Communist Party member Li Hanqiu began to advocate for the official adoption of Mother's Day in memory of Meng Mu, the mother of Mèng Zǐ. He formed a non-governmental organization called Chinese Mothers' Festival Promotion Society, with the support of 100 Confucian scholars and lecturers of ethics.[36][37] Li and the Society want to replace the Western-style gift of carnations with lilies, which, in ancient times, were planted by Chinese mothers when children left home.[37] Mother's Day remains an unofficial festival, except in a small number of cities.
[edit]Czech Republic
In the Czech Republic, Mother's Day is celebrated every second Sunday in May. It started in former Czechoslovakia in 1923.[20] Promoter of this celebration was Alice Masaryková.[20] After World War II communists replaced Mother's Day by International Woman's Day, celebrated on 8 March.[20] The former Czechoslovakia celebrated Women's Day until the Velvet Revolution in 1989.[20] After the split of the country in 1993, the Czech Republic started celebrating Mother's Day again.[20]
[edit]Estonia
In Estonia, Mother's Day (emadepäev in Estonian) is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. It is recognized nationally, but is not a public holiday.[38]
[edit]France
In France, amidst alarm at the low birth rate, there were attempts in 1896 and 1904 to create a national celebration honoring the mothers of large families.[39] In 1906 ten mothers who had nine children each were given an award recognising "High Maternal Merit" ("Haut mérite maternel").[citation needed] American World War I soldiers fighting in France popularized the US Mother's Day holiday created by Anna Jarvis. They sent so much mail back to their country for Mother's Day that the Union Franco-Américaine created a postal card for that purpose.[39] In 1918, also inspired by Jarvis, the town of Lyon wanted to celebrate a "journée des Mères", but instead decided to celebrate a "Journée Nationale des Mères de familles nombreuses." The holiday was more inspired by anti-depopulation efforts than by the US holiday, with medals awarded to the mothers of large families.[39] The French government made the day official in 1920 as a day for mothers of large families.[40] Since then the French government awards the Médaille de la Famille française to mothers of large families.
In 1941, by initiative of Philippe Pétain, the wartime Vichy government used the celebration in support of their policy to encourage larger families, but all mothers were now honored, even mothers with smaller families.[40]
In 1950, after the war, the celebration was reinstated. The law of 24 May 1950 required that the Republic pay official homage to French Mothers on the last Sunday in May as the "Fête des Mères" (except when Pentecost fell on that day, in which case it was moved to the first Sunday in June).[citation needed]
During the 1950s, the celebration lost all its patriotic and natalist ideologies, and became heavily commercialized.[39]
In 1956, the celebration was given a budget and integrated into the new Code de l'action sociale et des familles.[citation needed] In 2004 responsibility for the holiday was transferred to the Minister responsible for families.[citation needed]
[edit]Germany


Mother's Day cake in Germany
In the 1920s, Germany had the lowest birthrate in Europe, and the declining trend was continuing. This was attributed to women's participation in the labor market. At the same time, influential groups in society (politicians of left and right, churchwomen, and feminists) believed that mothers should be honored but could not agree on how to do so. However, all groups strongly agreed on the promotion of the values of motherhood. In 1923, this resulted in the unanimous adoption of Muttertag, the Mother's Day holiday as imported from America[citation needed] and Norway. The head of the Association of German Florists cited "the inner conflict of our Volk and the loosening of the family" as his reason for introducing the holiday. He expected that the holiday would unite the divided country. In 1925, the Mother's Day Committee joined the task force for the recovery of the volk, and the holiday stopped depending on commercial interests and began emphasizing the need to increase the population in Germany by promoting motherhood.[41]
The holiday was then seen as a means to encourage women to bear more children, which nationalists saw as a way to rejuvenate the nation. The holiday did not celebrate individual women, but an idealized standard of motherhood. The progressive forces resisted the implementation of the holiday because it was backed by so many conservatives, and because they saw it as a way to eliminate the rights of working women. Die Frau, the newspaper of the Federation of German Women's Associations, refused to recognize the holiday. Many local authorities adopted their own interpretation of the holiday: it would be a day to support economically larger families or single-mother families. The guidelines for the subsidies had eugenics criteria, but there is no indication that social workers ever implemented them in practice, and subsidies were given preferentially to families in economic need rather than to families with more children or "healthier" children.[41]
With the Nazi party in power during 1933–1945, the situation changed radically. The promotion of Mother's Day increased in many European countries, including the UK and France. From the position of the German Nazi government, the role of mothers was to give healthy children to the German nation. The Nazi party's intention was to create a pure "Aryan race" according to nazi eugenics. Among other Mother's Day ideas, the government promoted the death of a mother's sons in battle as the highest embodiment of patriotic motherhood.[41][42]
The Nazis quickly declared Mother's Day an official holiday and put it under the control of the NSV (National Socialist People's Welfare Association) and the NSF (National Socialist Women Organization). This created conflicts with other organizations that resented Nazi control of the holiday, including Catholic and Protestant churches and local women's organizations. Local authorities resisted the guidelines from the Nazi government and continued assigning resources to families who were in economic need, much to the dismay of the Nazi officials.[41]


Mother's Day in UNRRA camp Germany in 1946
In 1938 the government began issuing an award called Mother's Cross (Mutterkreuz), according to categories that depended on the number of children a mother had. The medal was awarded on Mother's Day and also on other holidays due to the large number of recipients. The Cross was an effort to encourage women to have more children, and recipients were required to have at least four. For example, a gold cross recipient (level one) was obliged to have eight children or more. Because having fewer children was a recent development, the gold cross was awarded mainly to elderly mothers with adult children. The Cross promoted loyalty among German women and was a popular award even though it had little material reward and was mostly empty praise. The recipients of honors were compelled to be examined by doctors and social workers according to genetic and racial values that were considered beneficial. The mother's friends and family were also examined for possible flaws that could disqualify the mother, and they also had to be "racially and morally fit." They had to be "German-blooded," "genetically healthy," "worthy," "politically reliable," and could not have vices like drinking. Criteria that weighed against honors were, for example, "family history contains inferior blood", "unfeminine" behavior including smoking or doing poor housekeeping, not being "politically reliable", or having family members who had been "indicted and imprisoned". There were instances where a family was disqualified because a doctor saw signs of "feeblemindedness". Even contact with a Jew could disqualify a potential recipient. Some social workers had become disillusioned from the Weimar Republic and supported Nazi ideas personally as a means to "cure" the problems of the country. The application of policies was uneven, as doctors promoted medical criteria over racial criteria, and local authorities promoted economic need over any other criteria.[41][42]
The holiday is now celebrated on the second Sunday of May, in a manner similar to other nearby European countries.
[edit]Greece
Mother's Day in Greece is celebrated on the second Sunday of May.
[edit]By country (H–M)
[edit]Hungary
In Hungary, Mother's Day is celebrated on the first Sunday of May. It was first celebrated in 1925 by the Hungarian Red Cross Youth.
[edit]India
The modern Mother's Day has been assimilated into Indian culture,[43] and it is celebrated every year on the second Sunday of May.[44] In India, mothers are considered as god to their children.[citation needed] Indians do not celebrate the occasion as a religious one, but do their best to thank their mothers for care and love.
Traditionally, mothers are given great importance in Indian culture. The day is celebrated mostly in urban centers, by performing special acts to honour them and their contribution to the family. It is called मातृ दिनम् (matṛ dinam) (from Sanskrit). As per Hindu tradition, mothers are paid homage to on Saraswati pooja day during Devi Navrati, with "Maatru Pooja" (worship of mother).
[edit]Indonesia
Indonesian Mother's Day (Indonesian: Hari Ibu) is celebrated nationally on 22 December. The date was made an official holiday by President Soekarno under Presidential Decree (Indonesian: Dekrit Presiden) no. 316 in 1953, on the 25th anniversary of the 1928 Indonesian Women Congress. The day originally sought to celebrate the spirit of Indonesian women and to improve the condition of the nation. Today, the meaning of Mother's Day has changed, and it is celebrated by expressing love and gratitude to mothers. People present gifts to mothers (such as flowers) and hold surprise parties and competitions, which include cooking and kebaya wearing. People also allow mothers a day off from domestic chores.[45]
The holiday is celebrated on the anniversary of the opening day of the first Indonesian Women Congress (Indonesian: Kongres Perempuan Indonesia), which was held from 22 to 25 December 1928.[27][46] The Congress took place in a building called Dalem Jayadipuran,[47] which now serves as the office of the Center of History and Traditional Values Preservation (Indonesian: Balai Pelestarian Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional) in Brigjen Katamso Street, Yogyakarta. The Congress was attended by 30 feminist organizations from 12 cities in Java and Sumatra. In Indonesia, feminist organizations have existed since 1912, inspired by Indonesian heroines of the 19th century, e.g., Kartini, Martha Christina Tiahahu, Cut Nyak Meutia, Maria Walanda Maramis, Dewi Sartika, Nyai Ahmad Dahlan, Rasuna Said, etc.[27] The Congress intended to improve women's rights in education and marriage.[48]
Indonesia also celebrates the Kartini Day (Indonesian: Hari Kartini) on 21 April, in memory of activist Raden Ayu Kartini. This is a celebration of the emancipation of women.[46] The observance was instituted at the 1938 Indonesian Women Congress.[48]
During President Suharto's New Order (1965-1998), government propaganda used Mother's Day and Kartini Day to inculcate into women the idea that they should be docile and stay at home.[48]
[edit]Iran
In Iran, Mother's Day is celebrated on 20 Jumada al-thani. This is the sixth month in the Islamic calendar (a lunar calendar) and every year the holiday falls on a different day of the Gregorian calendar. This is the birthday anniversary of Fatimah,[29][49] Muhammad's only daughter according to Shia Islam orthodoxy. Mother's Day was originally observed on 16 December but the date was changed after the Iranian Revolution in 1979. The Islamic regime used the holiday as a propaganda tool to undercut feminist movements and to promote role models for the traditional concept of family. Fatimah was the chosen model of a submissive woman who was completely dedicated to traditional female roles.[29][50][50][51][52] The celebration is both Women's Day (replacing International Women's Day) and Mother's Day.[29][50]
In 1960, the Institute for Women Protection adopted the Western holiday and established it on 25 Azar (16 December) of the Iranian official calendar, the date the Institute was founded. The Institute's action had the support of Queen Farah Pahlavi, the wife of the last Shah of Persia, who promoted the construction of maternity clinics in remote parts of the country to commemorate the day. The government used the holiday to promote its maternalist view of women. The government honored and gave awards to women who represented the idealized view of the regime, including mothers who had many healthy children.[53]
[edit]Israel
The Jewish population celebrates Mother's Day on Shevat 30 of the Jewish calendar, which falls between 30 January and 1 March. The celebration was set as the same date that Henrietta Szold died. Henrietta had no biological children, but her organization Youth Aliyah rescued many Jewish children from Nazi Germany and provided for them. She also championed children's rights. Szold is considered the "mother" of all those children, and that is why her annual remembrance day (יום השנה) was set as Mother's Day (יוֹם הָאֵם, yom ha'em). The holiday has evolved over time, becoming a celebration of mutual love inside the family, called Family Day (יוֹם הַמִשְּפָּחָה, yom hamishpacha). Mother's Day is mainly celebrated by children at kindergartens. There are no longer mutual gifts among members of the family, and there is no longer any commercialization of the celebration. It is not an official holiday either.[28]
[edit]Ireland
In Ireland, Mother's Day is celebrated on Mothering Sunday, the fourth Sunday in Lent.
[edit]Italy
Mother's Day in Italy was celebrated for the first time on 12 May 1957, in the city of Assisi, thanks to the initiative of Rev. Otello Migliosi, parish priest of the Tordibetto church.[54] This celebration was so successful that the following year Mother's Day was adopted throughout Italy. In 18 December 1958 a proposal was presented to the Italian Senate to make official the holiday.[55] It is celebrated on the second Sunday in May.
[edit]Japan
In Japan, Mother's Day (母の日, Haha no Hi) was initially commemorated during the Shōwa period as the birthday of Empress Kōjun (mother of Emperor Akihito) on 6 March. This was established in 1931 when the Imperial Women's Union was organized. In 1937, the first meeting of "Praise Mothers" was held on 8 May, and in 1949 Japanese society adopted the second Sunday of May as the official date for Mother's Day in Japan. Currently Mother's Day in Japan is a rather commercial holiday, and people typically give their mothers gifts of flowers such as red carnations and roses.
[edit]Latvia
Mother's Day in Latvia was celebrated for the first time in 1922. Since 1938, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. It is recognized nationally, and is a public holiday.[56]
[edit]Malta
The first mention of Mother's Day in Malta occurred during the Radio Children's Programmes run by Frans H. Said in May 1961. Within a few years, Mother's Day became one of the most popular dates in the Maltese calendar. In Malta, this day is commemorated on the second Sunday in May. Mothers are invariably given gifts and invited for lunch, usually at a good quality restaurant.
[edit]Mexico
See also: Public holidays in Mexico#Festivities
In Mexico, the government of Álvaro Obregón imported the Mother's Day holiday from the US in 1922, and the newspaper Excélsior held a massive promotional campaign for the holiday that year.[57] The conservative government tried to use the holiday to promote a more conservative role for mothers in families, but that perspective was criticized by the socialists as promoting an unrealistic image of a woman who was not good for much more than breeding.[57]
In the mid-1930s the leftist government of Lázaro Cárdenas promoted the holiday as a "patriotic festival". The Cárdenas government tried to use the holiday as a vehicle for various efforts: to stress the importance of families as the basis for national development; to benefit from the loyalty that Mexicans felt towards their mothers; to introduce new morals to Mexican women; and to reduce the influence that the church and the Catholic right exerted over women.[58] The government sponsored the holiday in the schools.[58] However, ignoring the strict guidelines from the government, theatre plays were filled with religious icons and themes. Consequently, the "national celebrations" became "religious fiestas" despite the efforts of the government.[58]
Soledad Orozco García, the wife of President Manuel Ávila Camacho, promoted the holiday during the 1940s, resulting in an important state-sponsored celebration.[59] The 1942 celebration lasted a full week and included an announcement that all women could reclaim their pawned sewing machines from the Monte de Piedad at no cost.[59]
Due to Orozco's promotion, the catholic National Synarchist Union (UNS) took heed of the holiday around 1941.[60] Shop-owner members of the Party of the Mexican Revolution (now the Institutional Revolutionary Party) observed a custom allowing women from humble classes to pick a free Mother's Day gift from a shop to bring home to their families. The Synarchists worried that this promoted both materialism and the idleness of lower classes, and in turn, reinforced the systemic social problems of the country.[61] Currently this holiday practice is viewed as very conservative, but the 1940s' UNS saw Mother's Day as part of the larger debate on the modernization that was happening at the time.[62] This economic modernization was inspired by US models and was sponsored by the state. The fact that the holiday was originally imported from the US was seen as evidence of an attempt at imposing capitalism and materialism in Mexican society.[62]
The UNS and the clergy of the city of León interpreted the government's actions as an effort to secularize the holiday and to promote a more active role for women in society. They concluded that the government's long term goal was to cause women to abandon their traditional roles at home in order to spiritually weaken men.[62] They also saw the holiday as an attempt to secularize the cult to the Virgin Mary, inside a larger effort to dechristianize several holidays. The government sought to counter these claims by organizing widespread masses and asking religious women to assist with the state-sponsored events in order to "depaganize" them.[63] In 1942, at the same time as Soledad's greatest celebration of Mother's Day, the clergy organized the 210th celebration of the Virgin Mary with a large parade in León.[63]
There is a consensus among scholars that the Mexican government abandoned its revolutionary initiatives during the 1940s, including its efforts to influence Mother's Day.[60]
Today the "Día de las Madres" is an unofficial holiday in Mexico held each year on 10 May.[64]
[edit]By country (N–S)
[edit]Netherlands
In the Netherlands, Mother's Day was introduced as early as 1910 by the Dutch branch of the Salvation Army.[65] The Royal Dutch Society for Horticulture and Botany, a group protecting the interest of Dutch florists, worked to promote the holiday; they hoped to emulate the commercial success achieved by American florists.[66] They were imitating the campaign already underway by florists in Germany and Austria, but they were aware that the traditions had originated in the US.[66]
Florists launched a major promotional effort in 1925. This included the publication of a book of articles written by famous intellectuals, radio broadcasts, newspapers ads, and the collaboration of priests and teachers who wanted to promote the celebration for their own reasons.[66] In 1931 the second Sunday of May was adopted as the official celebration date. In the mid-1930s the slogan Moederdag - Bloemendag (Mother's Day - Flower's Day) was coined, and the phrase was popular for many years.[67] In the 1930s and 1940's "Mother's Day cakes" were given as gifts in hospitals and to the Dutch Queen, who is known as the "mother of the country".[67] Other trade groups tried to cash in on the holiday and to give new meaning to the holiday in order to promote their own wares as gifts.[67]
Roman Catholic priests complained that the holiday interfered with the honouring of the Virgin Mary, the divine mother, which took place during the whole month of May. In 1926 Mother's Day was celebrated on 7 July in order to address these complaints.[68] Catholic organizations and priests tried to Christianize the holiday, but those attempts were rendered futile around the 1960s when the church lost influence and the holiday was completely secularized.[68]
In later years the initial resistance disappeared, and even leftist newspapers stopped their criticism and endorsed Mother's Day.[69]
In the 1980s, the American origin of the holiday was still not widely known, so feminist groups who opposed the perpetuation of gender roles sometimes claimed that Mother's Day was invented by Nazis and celebrated on the birthday of Hitler's mother.[70]
[edit]Nepal
"Mata Tirtha Aunsi" ("Mother Pilgrimage fortnight"), or "Mata Tirtha Puja" ("Mother Pilgrimage offering"), falls on the last day of the dark fortnight of the Baishakh month (April/May). The dark fortnight is fifteen days from the full moon to the new moon. "Mata" means mother. "Tirtha" means pilgrimage. This festival is observed to commemorate and respect mothers and is celebrated by worshipping, giving gifts to mothers, and remembering mothers who have died. To honor mothers who have died, it is traditional to go in pilgrimage to the Mata Tirtha ponds, which are six miles south west of central Katmandu. The nearby Mata Tirtha village is named after these ponds. Previously, the tradition was observed primarily by people from Newar communities and people living in the valley. Now, this festival is widely celebrated by many communities.
There is a story regarding the origin of this pilgrimage site. In ancient times the mother of a shepherd died, and he made offerings to a nearby pond. There he saw the face of his mother in the water, with her hand taking the offerings. Since then, many people visit the pond, hoping to see their deceased mothers' faces. At the very least, people believe that they will bring peace to their mothers' souls. Many tragic folklore legends have been created, suggesting different reasons why this pond became a pilgrimage site. Till this day, there are two small ponds. The larger one is for bathing. The smaller one is to "look upon one's mother's face" and it's fenced by iron bars.[71]
In Nepali "Aama ko Mukh Herne Din", the literal translation is "to see Mother's face".
[edit]New Zealand
In New Zealand, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday in May. Mother's Day is not a public holiday. The New Zealand tradition is to give cards and gifts and to serve mothers breakfast in bed.
[edit]Nicaragua
In Nicaragua, the Día de la Madre has been celebrated on 30 May since the early 1940s. The date was chosen by President Anastasio Somoza García because it was the birthday of Casimira Sacasa, his wife's mother.[24]
[edit]Maldives
In Maldives, Mother's Day is celebrated on 13 May. The day is celebrated in different ways. Children give gifts and spend time with their mothers. Daughters give their mothers cards and handmade gifts and son's give their mothers gifts and flowers. Maldivians love to celebrate Mother's day, and they have it specially written on their calendar.
[edit]Pakistan
In Pakistan, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. Media channels celebrate with special shows. Individuals honor their mothers by giving gifts and commemorative articles. Individuals who have lost their mothers pray and pay their respects to their loved ones lost.
[edit]Panama
In Panama, Mother's Day is celebrated on 8 December, the same day as the Feast of the Immaculate Conception. This date was suggested in 1930 by the wife of Panama's President Florencio Harmodio Arosemena. 8 December was adopted as Mother's Day under Law 69, which was passed the same year.[26]
According to another account, in 1924 the Rotary Club of Panama asked that Mother's Day be celebrated on 11 May. However, politician Aníbal D. Ríos changed the proposal, so that the celebration would be held on 8 December. He then established Mother's Day as a national holiday on that date.[72]
[edit]Palestine
Palestinians celebrate Mother's Day on 21 March, similar to other Arab countries
[edit]Paraguay
In Paraguay, Mother's Day is celebrated on 15 May, the same day as the Dia de la Patria, which celebrates the independence of Paraguay.[22] This date was chosen to honor the role played by Juana María de Lara in the events of 14 May 1811 that led to Paraguay's independence.[73]
In 2008, the Paraguayan Minister of Culture, Bruno Barrios, lamented this coincidence because, in Paraguay, Mother's Day is much more popular than independence day and the independence celebration goes unnoticed. As a result, Barrios asked that the celebration be moved to the end of the month.[74] A group of young people attempted to gather 20,000 signatures to ask the Parliament to move Mother's Day.[74] In 2008 the Comisión de festejos (Celebration Committee) of the city of Asunción asked that Mother's Day be moved to the second Sunday of May.[75]
[edit]Philippines
Mother's day in the Philippines is celebrated every second Sunday of May. A Filipino mother is called the "light of the household" around which all activities revolve. Families treat mothers to movies or lunch or dinner out, spend time with their mothers in a park or shopping at the mall, or give their mothers time to pamper themselves. Most families celebrate at home. Children perform most chores that the mother routinely handles, prepare food or give their mothers small handcrafted tokens such as cards.
Although in its current form Mother's Day is not a traditional Filipino holiday, this and Father's Day owe their popularity to American influence.
[edit]Poland
In Poland, "Dzień Matki" ("Mother's Day") is celebrated on 26 May.
[edit]Portugal
In Portugal, the "Dia da Mãe" ("Mother's Day", literally) is an unofficial holiday held each year on the first Sunday of May (sometimes coinciding with Labour Day).
[edit]Romania
In Romania, since 2010, Mother's Day is celebrated on the first Sunday of May.[76] Law 319/2009 made both Mother's Day and Father's Day official holidays in Romania. The measure was passed thanks to campaign efforts from the Alliance Fighting Discrimination Against Fathers (TATA).[76] Previously, Mother's Day was celebrated on 8 March, as part of International Women's Day (a tradition from the days when Romania was part of the communist block). Now Mother's Day and Women's Day are two separate holidays, with Women's Day keeping its original date of 8 March.
[edit]Russia

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In Russia, the Mother's Day holiday was established in 1998 by law initiated by "Committee on Women, Family and Youth" of the State Duma. The initiative belongs to Alevtina Viktorovna Aparina, State Duma deputy and a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. Since 1998, Mother's Day is celebrated on the last Sunday of November.
Traditionally Russia had celebrated International Women's Day and Mother's Day on 8 March, an inheritance from the Soviet Union, and a public holiday.[77]
Women's Day was first celebrated in 1913 and in 1914 was proclaimed as the "day of struggle" for working women.
In 1917, demonstrations marking International Women's Day in Saint Petersburg on the last Sunday in February (which fell on 8 March on the Gregorian calendar) initiated the February Revolution. Following the October Revolution later that year, the Bolshevik Alexandra Kollontai persuaded Vladimir Lenin to make it an official holiday in the Soviet Union, and it was established, but was a working day until 1965.
On 8 May 1965, by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, International Women's Day was declared a non-working day in the Soviet Union "in commemoration of the outstanding merits of Soviet women in communistic construction, in the defense of their Fatherland during the Great Patriotic War, in their heroism and selflessness at the front and in the rear, and also marking the great contribution of women to strengthening friendship between peoples, and the struggle for peace. But still, women's day must be celebrated as are other holidays."[78]
[edit]Singapore
In Singapore, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. The day is celebrated by individuals but not recognized as a holiday by the government. However, many companies offer special products and services for the day.
[edit]Slovakia
Czechoslovakia celebrated only Women's Day until the Velvet Revolution in 1989. After the country split in 1993, Slovakia started celebrating both Women's Day and Mother's Day. The politicization of Women's Day has affected the official status of Mother's Day. Center-right parties want Mother's Day to replace Women's Day, and social-democrats want to make Women's Day an official holiday. Currently, both days are festive, but they are not "state holidays". In the Slovak Republic, Mother's Day is celebrated every second Sunday in May.[20]
[edit]Sri Lanka
In Sri Lanka, Mother's Day is celebrated every year on the second Sunday of May. Although relatively new to Sri Lanka, this occasion is now becoming more popular, and more people now honor their mothers on this day. Mother's Day is celebrated by individuals but is not yet recognized as a holiday on the government calendar. However, the day has a commercial importance with many companies that offer special products and services for the day.
[edit]Sweden
In Sweden, Mother's Day was first celebrated in 1919, by initiative of the author Cecilia Bååth-Holmberg. It took several decades for the day to be widely recognized. Swedes born in the early nineteen hundreds typically did not celebrate the day because of the common belief that the holiday was invented strictly for commercial purposes. This was in contrast to Father's Day, which has been widely celebrated in Sweden since the late 1970s. Mother's Day in Sweden is celebrated on the last Sunday in May. A later date was chosen to allow everyone to go outside and pick flowers.
[edit]Switzerland
In Switzerland, the "règle de Pentecôte" law allows Mother's Day to be celebrated a week late if the holiday falls on the same day as Pentecost. However, in 2008, merchants declined to move the date.[79]
[edit]By country (T–Z)
[edit]Taiwan
In Taiwan, Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of the month of May, coinciding with Buddha's birthday and the traditional ceremony of "washing the Buddha". In 1999 the Taiwanese government established the second Sunday of May as Buddha's birthday, so they would be celebrated in the same day.[80][81]
Since 2006,[82] the Tzu Chi, the largest charity organization in Taiwan, celebrates the Tzu Chin Day, Mother's Day and Buddha's birthday all together, as part of a unified celebration and religious observance.[83][84][85]
[edit]Thailand
Mother's day in Thailand is celebrated on the birthday of the Queen of Thailand, Queen Sirikit (12 August).[86] The holiday was first celebrated around the 1980s as part of the campaign by the Prime Minister of Thailand Prem Tinsulanonda to promote Thailand's Royal family.[87] Father's Day is celebrated on the King's birthday.[87]
[edit]Turkey
Turkey celebrates Mother's Day ("Anneler günü", literally "Mothers' Day") on the second Sunday of May.
[edit]Ukraine
Ukraine celebrates Mother's Day (Ukrainian: День Матері) on the second Sunday of May. In Ukraine, Mother's Day officially became a holiday only in 1999 [88] and is celebrated since 2000. Since then Ukrainian society struggles to transition the main holiday that recognizes woman from the International Women's Day (a holiday embraced in the USSR and that remained as a legacy in Ukraine after its collapse) to Mother's Day.
[edit]United Kingdom
Main article: Mothering Sunday
The United Kingdom celebrates Mothering Sunday, which falls on the fourth Sunday of Lent (10 March in 2013). This holiday has its roots in the church and was originally unrelated to the American holiday.[5][89] Most historians believe that Mothering Sunday evolved from the 16th-century Christian practice of visiting one's mother church annually on Laetare Sunday.[5] As a result of this tradition, most mothers were reunited with their children on this day when young apprentices and young women in service were released by their masters for that weekend. As a result of the influence of the American Mother's Day, Mothering Day transformed into the tradition of showing appreciation to one's mother. Commercialization and secularization further eroded the concept, and most people now see the holiday only as a day to make a gift to their mothers.[citation needed] The holiday is still recognized in the original historical sense by many churches, with attention paid to Mary the mother of Jesus Christ and the concept of the Mother Church.
The custom was still popular by the start of the 19th century, but with the Industrial Revolution, traditions changed and the Mothering Day customs declined.[89] By 1935, Mothering Sunday was less celebrated in Europe.[citation needed] Constance Penswick-Smith worked unsuccessfully to revive the festival in the 1910s–1920s. However, US World War II soldiers brought the US Mother's Day celebration to the UK,[90] and the holiday was merged with the Mothering Sunday traditions still celebrated in the Church of England.[91] By the 1950s, the celebration became popular again in the whole of the UK, thanks to the efforts of UK merchants, who saw in the festival a great commercial opportunity.[91] People from UK started celebrating Mother's Day on the fourth Sunday of Lent, the same day on which Mothering Sunday had been celebrated for centuries. Some Mothering Sunday traditions were revived, such as the tradition of eating cake on that day, although celebrants now eat simnel cake instead of the cakes that were traditionally prepared at that time.[citation needed] The traditions of the two holidays are now mixed together and celebrated on the same day, although many people are not aware that the festivities have quite separate origins.[92]
Mothering Sunday can fall at the earliest on 1 March (in years when Easter Day falls on 22 March) and at the latest on 4 April (when Easter Day falls on 25 April).
For many people in the United Kingdom, Mother's Day is now the time of year to celebrate and buy gifts of chocolate or flowers for their mothers as a way to thank them for all they do throughout the year.
[edit]United States
Handmade Mother's Day gifts
The United States celebrates Mother's Day on the second Sunday in May. In 1872 Julia Ward Howe called for women to join in support of disarmament and asked for 2 June 1872, to be established as a "Mother's Day for Peace".[6] Her 1870 "Appeal to womanhood throughout the world" is sometimes referred to as Mother's Day Proclamation. But Howe's day was not for honoring mothers but for organizing pacifist mothers against war. In the 1880s and 1890s there were several further attempts to establish an American "Mother's Day", but these did not succeed beyond the local level.[6] The current holiday was created by Anna Jarvis in Grafton, West Virginia in 1908 as a day to honor one's mother.[9] Jarvis wanted to accomplish her mother's dream of making a celebration for all mothers, although the idea did not take off until she enlisted the services of wealthy Philadelphia merchant John Wanamaker, who celebrated it on May 8th, 1910 in Bethany Temple Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, PA of which he was the founder. In a letter to the pastor, she said it was, "our first Mother's Day".[93] Jarvis kept promoting the holiday until President Woodrow Wilson made the day an official national holiday in 1914.[6] The holiday eventually became so highly commercialized that many, including its founder, Anna Jarvis, considered it a "Hallmark holiday," i.e. one with an overwhelming commercial purpose. Jarvis eventually ended up opposing the holiday she had helped to create.[9][94] She died in 1948, regretting what had become of her holiday.[93] In the United States, Mother's Day remains one of the biggest days for sales of flowers, greeting cards, and the like; Mother's Day is also the biggest holiday for long-distance telephone calls.[95] Moreover, churchgoing is also popular on Mother's Day, yielding the highest church attendance after Christmas Eve and Easter.[96] Many worshipers celebrate the day with carnations, colored if the mother is living and white if she is dead.[96]
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